characterizes the issue as:
the question [of] …what it is for something to have being. What does existence itself consist in – what is its nature? When something exists, what exactly is true of it? What kind of condition is existence? How does an existent thing differ from a nonexistent thing? (p. 211)
He makes several
important observations about this question.
First, it is a serious philosophical question, but one that is distinct
from the issues that analytic philosophers tend to confine themselves to when
discussing existence. In particular, it
is distinct from questions about whether “exists” is a first- or second-level
predicate, and it is distinct from questions about what sorts of things we
should allow into our ontology (material objects, numbers, moral values,
universals, etc.). Analytic philosophers
have a lot to say about those questions, but little to say about the question
McGinn says that the question is not plausibly addressed by philosophical views
which are essentially anthropocentric (such as verificationism, pragmatism, and
some versions of idealism). Since human
beings could have failed to exist, it cannot be correct to think of existence
in terms of what we could empirically
verify, or what is useful to us, or what we perceive.
McGinn correctly notes that empirical science cannot answer the question
either. There can be a science of
particular sorts of existing things – plants, animals, chemical elements, basic
particles, and so on. But “there cannot
be an empirical science of existence-as-such” (p. 213). He does not elaborate, but since part of what
is involved in the question of being is whether what exists outstrips what is
material or empirically detectable, it obviously cannot be answered by way of
methods that confine themselves to matter and the empirical.
So far so
good. McGinn also correctly notes that
even if we take the view that the notion of existence is primitive and
unanalyzable, “it should be possible to say something
illuminating about it – not provide a classical noncircular analysis, perhaps,
but at least offer some elucidatory remarks” (p 211).
So why was I
provoked? Because McGinn also claims
that in the history of philosophy, the question of being “has been ignored,
evaded perhaps” (p. 212). Indeed:
There is a huge gap at the heart of
philosophy: the nature of existence. In
fact, we might see the history of (Western) philosophy as a systematic
avoidance of this problem. We have not
confronted the question of being, not head on anyway. (p. 211)
When philosophers started to organize
and educate, a few thousand years ago, they would be tacitly aware of the
problem but had nothing useful to communicate, so they left it alone, kept it
off the syllabus, and discouraged students from raising it. And today we still have no idea what to say,
beyond the two questions I mentioned earlier. (p. 213)
Seriously?! Has McGinn not heard of Parmenides? Plato on being and becoming? Avicenna?
Aquinas’s De Ente et Essentia? Heidegger’s Being and Time? Sartre’s Being and Nothingness? Gilson’s Being
and Some Philosophers? Obviously he
must have. And that’s just scratching
the surface. Nor has the question in
fact been ignored by all analytic philosophers, as evidenced by books like
Barry Miller's and Bill Vallicella’s .
So, what the hell is McGinn talking about?
Heidegger famously alleged that Western philosophy after Plato had evaded the
question of being. But McGinn can’t mean
what Heidegger meant, since he cites neither the Pre-Socratics nor Heidegger
himself as exceptions to the charge that philosophers have “ignored” or
“evaded” the question of being.
My guess is
that McGinn simply has the myopia stereotypical of analytic philosophers (even
if not actually fairly attributable to all of them). To be sure, McGinn’s work often does engage
seriously with the history of philosophy, though his range of knowledge of and
interest in it seems not to extend before the early modern period. And it would be churlish to criticize him too
harshly, since, as I say, he does
take the question seriously (which a truly myopic analytic philosopher would
fact remains that it is hard to see how anyone even vaguely familiar with
ancient and medieval philosophy could make the assertions he does. And even analytic philosophers should know
better – and as I have said, often do know better. For example, thinkers like Wilfrid Sellars
and Richard Rorty seriously engaged with the pre-modern history of
philosophy. Indeed, though they couldn’t
be farther from Thomism, they knew of and to some extent engaged with the
Thomist tradition as it existed in their day (mainly as filtered through
writers like Gilson, Maritain, and Mortimer Adler).
One of the
big themes of the Thomism of those days was the way that Thomism offered a
deeper analysis of the nature of existence than the existentialism that was
then all the rage. For example,
Maritain’s is devoted to that theme. Now, as a Thomist whose training was
originally in analytic philosophy, even I find Maritain’s style sometimes a bit
hard to take. So, you can be sure that McGinn
would find it even more so. All the
same, such books evidence just how deeply the question of being was in fact being
addressed by thinkers whose work earlier analytic thinkers engaged with. And even some prominent contemporary analytic
philosophers whose work McGinn would know are still engaging with them –
consider, for example, Anthony Kenny’s book Aquinas
not talking even six degrees of separation here. Even given analytic myopia, it is remarkable
that McGinn would make statements so bold, sweeping – and embarrassingly easy
to prove false – as he did. A few
minutes of Googling should have dissuaded him.
The Thomist account
You don’t have
to read far into a book like Maritain’s to see that he offers exactly what
McGinn asks for – an account (drawn, of course, from Aquinas) that tries to be
“illuminating” and “elucidatory” even if it takes being to be in a sense
primitive. We have the classic Thomistic
- Being is a
broader notion than existence. After
all, the essence of a thing has a
kind of being or reality, but it is (as the classic Thomistic doctrine holds)
really distinct from the existence of
- Potentiality is a kind of being that is really
distinct from actuality, and
intermediate between actuality on the one hand and nothingness on the
other. Recognizing this distinction is
essential to avoiding Parmenidean static monism on the one hand (which posits a
world of pure being with no becoming), and Heraclitean dynamism on the other (which
posits a world of pure becoming with no being).
these two distinctions, the essence of a thing, considered in isolation, is a
kind of potential being, and the existence of a thing is what actualizes that
- Being is
an analogical notion, where analogy
is a literal middle ground usage between the univocal and the equivocal use of
terms. A substance, its attributes, its
form, its matter, its essence, its existence, etc. all have being, but not all
in exactly the same sense (even if not in equivocal senses either).
- Being is
not a genus nor a universal of any kind.
The relationship between individual beings and Being Itself is not the
relation between instances of a kind and the abstract kind of which they are
instances. It is rather a causal relation
between that which requires that existence be added to its essence in order for
it to be part of the world, and that which does not.
And so on. You might reject all this. You might judge that, at the end of the day, it
doesn’t hold up, perhaps for reasons like Kenny’s. (Though you shouldn’t – see my Scholastic
Metaphysics for exposition and defense of the Thomist position.) But you can’t deny that it amounts to exactly
the sort of thing McGinn says we need and claims that philosophers have
studiously avoided – a worked-out attempt to elucidate the nature of
being. And of course, Thomism is not the
only school of thought that has tried to offer that, as the history of ancient
and medieval philosophy (and even much modern philosophy) shows.
himself has some illuminating remarks to make in another article in the volume
titled “Antirealism Refuted.” To be
sure, they’re not presented as an attempt to elucidate the question of
being. All the same, one of the ways
that both common sense and philosophy try to understand reality is by contrast
with thought. For example, if you ask
the average person what it means to say that unicorns are not real, he is
likely to say that they are merely imaginary – that they cannot be found
outside the mind.
views in philosophy treat various phenomena that common sense takes to be real
as if they had no existence outside thought, or outside language, or outside
cultural practice, or what have you. For
example, an antirealist about moral value might say that morality has no
foundation in objective reality, but reflects only our emotional states or
cultural practices. An antirealist about
physical objects might say that physical substances are mere fictions that
allow us to organize our experiences, or that the very notion of a substance
(physical or otherwise) is a shadow of the subject-predicate structure of
language but corresponds to nothing in reality.
out that an antirealist view about some subject matter is essentially an error theory. It holds that we systematically just get
things wrong about that subject matter.
But interestingly, none of the usual sources of error can plausibly
explain why we would be subject to the errors antirealism attributes to
us. Nor do antirealist theories offer
plausible alternative suggestions about the source of the purported error.
out, for example, that errors in astronomy might arise from perceptual
illusion, errors in morality from prejudices, errors in politics from
indoctrination, and so on. But none of
these sources plausibly explain the sorts of errors posited by metaphysical antirealism. For example, even when none of the usual
sources of perceptual illusion are operating, the antirealist about physical
objects says we are still erring in
judging them to be real. But how? What exactly is the source of this error if
it is not (say) bad lighting, refraction, malfunctioning eyeballs, etc.? We might claim, with more or less
plausibility, that some specific
moral opinion arises from prejudice. But
how exactly would the more general belief that there is such a thing as objective
morality in the first place arise from prejudice?
basic argument against antirealism, then, is that it is an error theory that
has no workable theory of error. How
might this elucidate the nature of being or reality? Again, McGinn himself does not apply his
argument to that particular question.
But it is relevant. For error presupposes the distinction
between truth and falsity.
And antirealism itself implicitly supposes that error – the failure to
attain truth – entails a lack of correspondence between thought and reality,
whereas there would be such a correspondence if we were not in error.
realism/antirealism debate itself presupposes a conception of being or reality
as something extra-mental, to which the mind conforms when it attains
truth. Being is a correlate of truth. That gives us at least the beginnings of the
kind of “illuminating” or “elucidatory” account of being that McGinn wants. And here too the Thomistic tradition – which,
in its endorsement of the medieval notion of the “transcendentals,”
also says of being that it is convertible with truth (and with goodness, unity,
etc.) – provides ingredients for developing the analysis further.